Have you ever thought the wood lathe speed of a bowl blank is turning too fast or too slow?
If the lathe is too fast, things can get dangerous. If the lathe is too slow, turning can become tedious.
Wood lathe speed while making wooden bowls is important for two reasons – safety and efficiency.
If the lathe is too fast the turning bowl blank can become a dangerous projectile. If the lathe is too slow, cuts become clumsy and turning a bowl can take a long time.
What is the best wood lathe speed?
There are many factors to consider when determining lathe speed. The size of the bowl blank and the type and condition of the wood are the most critical elements to scrutinize.
In this article, I will share with you a specific way to determine lathe speed, and I will also share an easy formula and
Turning large bowl blanks are probably the most difficult to be patient with because they need to be turned slower than small blanks.
Remember back to childhood when you and other kids played on the merry-go-round? Recall holding on for dear life as someone spun you as fast as they could?
After spinning wildly on the merry-go-round, in an instant, you were giggling in a pile on the ground because you couldn’t maintain that grip? Well, that’s what we don’t want to happen with a bowl blank on the lathe.
I’m not sure those merry-go-rounds still exist. Probably too many lawsuits nowadays.
Wood Lathe Speed Orbit
OK, this is a bit of a mind-stretching exercise.
If you have a 4” bowl blank and a 10” bowl blank on a lathe turning at 500 RPMs (revolutions per minute), which bowl’s outer edge is turning faster?
When I was first introduced to this question, I thought for sure it was a trick question. “Both bowls are traveling at the same speed, 500 RPMs.” But that is not correct.
Yes, the revolutions per minute are the same, but the outer edge speeds are different.
The outer edge of the 4” bowl has a circumference of just over 12.5 inches. While the 10” bowl has a circumference of 31.41 inches.
What this means is that in one revolution the lathe turns both bowls once, but the 10” bowl blank’s outer edge is moving almost two and a half times faster than the 4” blank in the same amount of time.
The additional rotation speed of the large bowl plays a big factor on the forces pulling the bowl outward.
When we make a cutting pass from the rim to the bowl center, we can see this force in action. The beginning of the cut is fast and slides quickly across the surface. However, to maintain that same clean cut we must dramatically slow down the bowl gouge at the center nub of the bowl.
We must slow down the bowl gouge at the center point because we have to wait for the wood to rotate across the cutting bevel.
At the bowl rim, the material is moving much quicker than we can keep up with, but at the center, it is so slow we must be patient and wait.
Wood Lathe Speed Experiment
To illustrate this weird phenomenon try this experiment. If you can imagine it well enough in your mind, you may not need to go outside and try it, but it can be fun either way.
Find a vertical object, a tree, pole or post that is clear of obsticles all the way around.
Stand right next to the post with your hand touching the post and begin to walk slowly around the post while counting off seconds.
How long did it take to make one revolution?
Now, walk twenty paces away from that post and walk a circle around the post keeping the post in the center of your circle. Count the seconds it takes to make one rotation out there.
The post represents the center axis of the turning bowl blank, and each path represents the speed of rotation at the center of the bowl compared to the outer rim.
On the lathe, both paths, center and outer edge are completed in one rotation.
Does that illustrate how much faster the rim is turning compared to the center of the bowl?
Force and Physics
As we make larger bowls, we are adding much more speed and stress on the bowl blank. That added speed on the bowl size creates additional force that needs to be appreciated.
Don’t worry, I’m not going to get into physics. Why? Because I don’t have a clue about physics.
I do know, as wood bowl turners we need to be aware that larger bowl blanks are under much more force than smaller pieces.
That centrifugal force playing on the bowl blank will make the blank fly off the lathe if the conditions become too much for the blank to handle. Just like the kid sliding off the merry-go-round.
So why all the talk about size and rotation and physics? Because we must understand we can’t simply turn up the lathe as fast as we want without there being consequences.
Like everything in this world, there is always cause and effect.
I started turning on a lathe with a convenient RPM digital readout. At the time it seemed cool, but that wasn’t the greatest way to learn.
Let me tell you why.
When you’re learning any new skill, you’re basically trying to make repeatable patterns or movements to achieve an end result. As you consciously and subconsciously recall and repeat these learned movements, you form habits.
The habit of thinking a fixed RPM readout of 800, for example, is “the” ideal speed for making finishing cuts is dangerous. If all the bowls you turn are four inches, perhaps this will work. When you place an 18-inch bowl on the lathe and think 800 RPMs is the standard speed you could get in trouble.
Practical Wood Lathe Speed Application
In a moment I will share a commonly circulated wood lathe speed formula, but there is another, better way, I want to share first-human intuition.
I encourage you to put a piece of tape over an RPM readout display, if you have one, at least for a while. By blocking this information, you will not make as many assumptions, and you will probably pay more attention to the turning bowl blank.
When you pay attention to the subtle changes in sound, vibration, and the feel as you make cuts, you will be more in tune with the ideal lathe speed.
Start by attaching a bowl blank to the lathe. Always start with the lathe speed turned all the way down, then slowly increase the lathe speed.
Look, listen, and feel.
Feel the lathe, not the turning bowl blank. I just want to be clear there. LOL
If you sense any sounds or vibrations, back the speed down a bit until the rotation is smooth. This is the speed where you should begin working.
If you encounter just a subtle sound or vibration, try increasing the speed just a bit higher. Sometimes there are harmonic vibrations that occur at a particular speed, and once the speed is changed, they disappear.
There should be no odd sounds of vibrations when you turn. This can be daunting to realize, especially if you’re turning a sizeable off-balanced bowl blank.
Don’t fear, as you begin to true up the blank, you will be able to increase the speed a bit.
To learn much more about reducing wood lathe vibration, be sure to see this article next.
Wood Lathe Speed Ever-Changing
Initially, most wood bowl blanks are hardly ever perfectly balanced. Rarely will a bowl blank turn smoothly and at optimal lathe speed at first.
When you begin turning a blank bring the speed up to the point when vibration or noise starts to occur, then back the pace down a bit until smooth rotation returns.
True up the face of the bowl blank and the side as well. With these two areas smoothed, you should be able to increase the lathe speed gradually.
As you further progress in shaping the bowl, the blank will naturally become more balanced, and the lathe speed can be increased accordingly, but do not exceed safe limits for the size of bowl you are creating.
If you’ve read my other articles you know I try to not generalize. And wood is definitely a huge component in this equation that can not be generalized.
Every piece of wood you put on your lathe is different. Even if two bowl blanks were cut from the same tree or even the same log, they could be very different.
Knots, bark enclosures, rot, moisture content may be apparent or hidden at first and cause all sorts of imbalance.
If you are new to wood bowl turning, avoid turning pieces that have issues of loose bark, voids, rot, etc. There are too many variables and its best to not practice learning skills with poor quality wood.
Questionable Bowl Blanks
On the other hand, if you are more experienced, oddly shaped wood or wood with imperfections can make amazingly beautiful turned bowls. Just be aware of the hazards and take precautions.
Remove extremely loose bark or material by hand before you begin to turn. Use a screwdriver and pry out debris, so it does not become shrapnel while turning.
Once the outside of the bowl is shaped, consider taping or wrapping the exterior of the bowl with stretch packing plastic film to secure the exterior while turning the interior.
Be careful not to allow any tape or plastic to contact the headstock area.
Safety and Speed When Turning
Regardless of what type or condition of wood you are turning there are always ways to be safer on the lathe.
When turning bowls, especially larger diameter bowls do the following to increase your chances for success.
- Wear safety equipment at all times
- Wear safety glasses
- Wear a face-shield
- Stand to the side of the turning blank
- Start with the lathe speed to the lowest setting
- Do not exceed the formula guideline RPMs for a given bowl (see below)
- Avoid turning damaged or questionable wood
- If you must turn questionable wood, secure the bowl blank (see above)
- Use sharp tools
- Be patient with your progress
Wood Lathe Speed Rule of Thumb
There is a general rule of thumb for bowls and lathe speed.
However, before I share this, it’s important to note that this rule of thumb does not apply to large bowls. Large bowls MUST be turned slower.
The wood lathe speed rule of thumb is – do not to exceed 1,000 RPMs.
One thousand RPMs seems to be a magical point at which bowl blanks either go up or down if they come off the lathe.
If the speed is under 1,000 RPMs, then a dislodged bowl blank is supposed to fall to the floor. Speeds faster than 1,000 RPMs can send a bowl upward and at your face or torso.
Now I don’t know if the 1,000 RPM threshold can be scientifically proven or if this is an urban myth started by a shop teacher in the 1960s, but it does seem to work.
I have had a couple of bowls come off the lathe and skip across the floor, and my lathe speed was under 1,000 RPMs. By the way, those flying bowls were due to tenons that broke because of brittle, dry pecan wood, for the most part. That’s a whole other article. LOL
Wood Lathe Speed Calculation
The calculation to get a maximum ballpark speed for your bowl blank on a wood lathe is as follows.
Take the diameter (D) of the bowl divided by 9,000
9000 / D = Maximum RPMs
For Example: 10 Inch Bowl = 9,000 / 10 = 900 RPMs Maximum
For clarity, this is the maximum speed under any conditions. Meaning, if the bowl blank is turned smooth and true and there is zero vibration still DO NOT exceed these lathe speeds based on the diameter of the bowl.
Wood Lathe Speed Guideline Chart
- 9≤ Inch Diameter Bowl and Under = 1,000 RPMs
- 10 Inch Diameter Bowl = 900 RPMs
- 11 Inch Diameter Bowl = 815 RPMs
- 12 Inch Diameter Bowl = 750 RPMs
- 13 Inch Diameter Bowl = 690 RPMs
- 14 Inch Diameter Bowl = 640 RPMs
- 15 Inch Diameter Bowl = 600 RPMs
- 16 Inch Diameter Bowl = 560 RPMs
- 17 Inch Diameter Bowl = 525 RPMs
- 18 Inch Diameter Bowl = 500 RPMs
- 19 Inch Diameter Bowl = 470 RPMs
- 20 Inch Diameter Bowl = 450 RPMs
- 21 Inch Diameter Bowl = 425 RPMs
- 22 Inch Diameter Bowl = 400 RPMs
- 23 Inch Diameter Bowl = 390 RPMs
- 24 Inch Diameter Bowl = 375 RPMs
- 25 Inch Diameter Bowl = 360 RPMs
- 26 Inch Diameter Bowl = 345 RPMs
- 27 Inch Diameter Bowl = 333 RPMs
- 28 Inch Diameter Bowl = 320 RPMs
- 29 Inch Diameter Bowl = 310 RPMs
- 30 Inch Diameter Bowl = 300 RPMs
This chart is designed to merely be a guideline of maximum speeds. Use common sense when turning any piece of wood and avoid dangerous or poor quality wood with splits, checks, or cracks.
Lathe Speed Temptation
There is often a temptation to turn faster than what is considered safe, especially when you have acquired good turning skills and the bowl blank is turned to a balanced shape.
Avoid the temptation to turn beyond what is safe. If you need to, adopt the 1,000 RPM limit “bowl goes down” rule of thumb. I use that rule, and it works for me.
Spindle Lathe Speeds
If you dabble in spindle turning too, it can be tough to slow down the lathe to make a wood bowl. Spindle turning lathe speeds can reach two, three, four thousand RPMs and higher.
Why are spindle speeds so much faster than bowl lathe speeds?
Spindle turning lathe speeds can be much faster because of the much smaller diameter of wood material and the relatively small amount of mass compared to bowl blanks.
Think back to the orbit example. A wood pen blank that is 3/4” wide can turn much much faster than any bowl.
Just remember when you venture from spindle turning to the “real world of turning” and making bowls, the speed must come down. It’s no longer play time. Ha! I’m just kidding about that…sorta. 😉
Wood Lathe Speed Conclusion
Know the limits for the size and condition of the bowl blank you are turning. Don’t exceed those limits and all should be fine.
Use your intuition. If something seems off or odd, perhaps a subtly different sound becomes apparent, slow down the lathe a bit.
Gradually increase the lathe speed as your bowl takes shape and becomes more balanced, but don’t force the situation by ramping up the RPMs prematurely.
Use common sense, pay attention to your turning bowl blank, know the limits based on each bowl size and you can make a beautiful bowl safely and efficiently.
Further Reading you might enjoy:
• WOOD LATHE VIBRATION SOLUTIONS – BOWL TURNING SMOOTHLY
• 13 WAYS TO RUIN A WOODTURNED BOWL
• FINISHING CUT – WOOD BOWL TURNING BEYOND THE BASICS
• 10 BOWL TURNING BASICS – IMPORTANT FAQS ANSWERED
As always I learned something new , you have a gift of making a point in easy language so anyone can follow along. I have been getting rid of old habits also like moving your whole body with your cut I fought it a long time but now that I put forth the effort its honestly easier to get a nice cut riding the bevel and moving the body. I did not know the speed of a 1000 to keep work from hitting in the face but I had one blow up on me I was turning between 850 -900 and it hit me in the chest lucky and that explain why it did not knock a tooth out. Thanks for good info as always
Thank you for writing and sharing!
Yes, we need to “dance” at the lathe. LOL As much as most of us guys don’t like dancing, we have to do it to get smooth cuts.
I’m glad you didn’t get hurt with the “blow up.” Stay safe!
All the best to you and Happy Turning!
I am Jack from Mombasa, Kenya, Africa .
I liked your article. I don’t have a large, but planning to fabricate one for both 6 ft spindles and bowls.
Any sketches or drawings ?.
I don’t have any lathe plans. But I can tell you a couple of important details. A variable speed motor that can turn as low as 25-50 rpm, up to 1500-2000 rpm is ideal. Also, the center point of the headstock and tailstock need to be perfectly in line with one another. All the best to you and Happy Turning!
Enjoy the project!
I plan on saving this app on the speed you should ge at for turning, but how do I tell my speed if I don’t have speed setting. I’m working with a Beaver 3400 which I picked up used.
Without an rpm readout, you will need to use common sense. Watch this https://youtu.be/qkAwPg-fPN8
All the best to you and Happy Turning!
I’m just starting into this hobby and appreciate the information in this article…very informative…and something I’ll follow as I progress.
I’d like to point out an error in your calculation statement…it should state “take 9000 and divide it by the diameter of the bowl”…the formula and calculations are ok and that’s what everyone is looking at, so it really isn’t much of an issue…
Thanks again for article…
Thanks for pointing that out.
Kent, I am recovering from a stroke and have had to review your article to get back it turning bowls again. I have some right hand restrictions that make it almost impossible for me too sharpen tool and have resorted to using carbon carbide tools and been successful, although sanding much more! My main problem that I’ve
used the method of gluing my blank to blank and cutting exterior and interteor then cutting the core off. I have been using this method fairly succssfully but have had some glue failure would like to see using a chuck would be better, but forget what size to look for. My lathe will turn max 12″. I”m trying to eliminate variables to make it enjoyabe again! I’m 84 and just turned my first bowl in 2019 and have 20 bowls succesfully. I live in Lady Lake.
Thank you, Bob! You might want to try a 4″ dovetail jaw set on your chuck. https://turnawoodbowl.com/bowl-chuck-for-wood-lathe-how-to-use/ You can initially mount the blank in a variety of ways. See this article. https://turnawoodbowl.com/attach-wood-lathe-3-safe-secure-methods/ You are doing great making bowls. Keep it up! All the best to you and Happy Turning!
I inherited an old Grizzly 14″ lathe, It has two spring loaded pulleys that are supposed to spread apart to adjust the speed. However, the pulleys are aluminum and the shaft is steel (a very bad combination!) and they seize. Do you know where I might find a variable speed motor and speed control. All the sources I’ve checked so far would cost more than the lathe is worth. I love turning bowls but the lack of speed control is a problem.
I’m not sure about the specifics for your lathe. I’d recommend finding a mechanical/electrical savvy friend to help or contact a small electric machine shop and see if they can help or give you advice.
Hi, everybody, I come from Malta I do not know if everyone knows where that is? It is a Mediterranean country just below Sicilytis an island full of sunshine. Anyway, that is just y introduction. I have just bought a lathe an Austrian lathe Holzmann D460fxl, it is not such a great thing but for me, as an enthusiast, it is great (although the seller gave me a hard time).
I am finding your articles very helpful and I am learning a lot and always looking forward for your new articles. I am just turning spindles fr the time being but later I will try to do some bowl turning. In Malta timber is so expensive and blanks are very rare to get but every now and then I go to some furniture makers and try to buy some offcuts which I still have to buy.
Thanks again and hoping for more interesting articles from your library.
Thank you for writing and welcome…from Malta!
Boy have I learned about lathe speed the hard way. A trip to the ER and 15 stitches!
I was turned apiece of salvaged maple butcher block into a 1 1/2″ x 12″ platter. I was in the final sanding phase and spinning pretty fast when kaboom! The work piece came apart. One piece hit we in the chest and the other whacked my pinky finger really good. I first thought of amputation or broken bones. But when I gather the nerve to look I saw everything still attached but definitely messed up.
The next day I looked at the work piece and saw that a glue joint had failed. Crystallized glue stuck to both sides of the joint, but no torn wood grain. So the glue just let go.
I had no idea how fast I was turning because the lathe is an old Teknatool 3000 that I adapted with a new 3 phase 2 hp motor and VFD. The scale on the machine was no longer valid. I decided to figure something out, so during my convalescence I researched spindle tachometer. I found one that uses a small magnet on the turning spindle that is read by a sensor and displays RPM on a digital read out. I ORDERED IT ON Amazon and soon had it working.
So how fast had I been going when things went South? Probably 1500 rpm, or WAY TOO FAST!
Now that I have a functional tachometer I feel safe again.
Yikes! That’s scary indeed. I’m glad you’re ok now. Yes, keep that speed in check with the RPM gauge for now, but also pay attention to how it feels and sounds and you’ll know instinctively what speeds are best at different times. Also, no need to sand that fast, be sure to check out my sanding article too. All the best to you and be safe, Kent
Hi Loren or Ken,
I am not sure to whom this email will go.
I have a Teknatool 1200 I would like to convert to a variable speed lathe. Electric motors are a mystery to me and I could use some advice. Can this lathe be converted? what would I need? how do I get started?
Any help would be appreciated.
I have a Nova 3000 and the main control board is toast. I have contacted Teknatool and dealers looking for a replacement part but I haven’t been able to get a response.
Can you share any insight you might have regarding how you “adapted” your 3000 with a new motor and VFD?
I’d love to help with this issue, but I’m not an electrician, nor do I have a 3000.
If you don’t get any help from the dealer or manufacturer, I’d suggest trying to find an electric motor repair shop and see if they can help.
All the best to you and Happy Turning!
I think you should mention to use the tail stock when possible, especially when starting up.
That’s always great advice. Thanks for the reminder!
As usual, I learned some valuable information from your article. If anyone mentions starting Bowl turning I would direct them to your site,. Wish I had found it before I started, having to unlearn some bad habits even though I’ve only been turning bowls for 3+ months. I am fully addicted, having turned over 20 bowls so far. I find myself at the office or before going to sleep, mentally turning bowls lol. Thanks
Thanks for your kinds and uplifting words!
And by the way, you know you’re hooked on bowl turning when you are mentally visualizing turning while in bed. 😉
I know because I do it too. LOL
All the best to you and take care!
I fully agree with this article and understand centrifugal force (physics background). However, I have noticed problems for personality types that follow strict rules and guidelines without thinking. I turn pens in addition to bowls. On several occasions in the past 15 years, bowl turners would come on and be horrified at 2000 rpm or 3500 rpm and make statements on how dangerous that was. For pen blanks that start out at 3/4 inch square, 2000 or 3000 RPM is not a problem.
This article is for bowls and large diameter work. I understand that, and you understand that, but there are a few of those that follow that rule of the law into other territories (pen and spindle turning worlds) and are horrified by it.
Just wanted to clarify this for those readers that don’t understand the difference.
Thanks for sharing. Yes, I mention that spindle work is done at much higher speeds. And I agree that some don’t follow rules.
This site is all about the art of making wooden bowls. If I were to explain all aspects of all turning processes it would simply be too much.
I think you explained the facts about spindle turning very well in you comment. Thank you.
I’m HAMIDREZA from IRAN
Thank you for the good and informative content.
Thank you for your compliment and for writing, from Iran!
I hope the COVID19 virus is staying away for you. Take care!
All the best, and
The reason some are questioning the formula for bowl turning speed I think, is the fact that in the text you say “Take the diameter (D) of the bowl divided by 9,000” but you actually mean “take 9000 & divide it by the diameter (D)”. Hope this helps.
Love your stuff – so easy to understand.
Just looking for my first lathe (Ontario Canada here) to pick up where I left off 45 + years ago in school shop! There is a Busy Bee Machines lathe – Craftex CX 803- that seems a good start for a new lathe, but slowest spindle speed is 600., and max size is 14 inch diameter. Should i consider something that will go even slower to increase my margin of safety for 10-14 inch bowls down the road ? I will of course start smaller 🙂
I would recommend trying to find a variable speed lathe. A fixed speed lathe, especially one that can only go as slow as 600 rpm is not good for bowl turning and not safe. If you put an unbalanced bowl blank, even a smaller one, on this lathe and flip it on to a set 600 rpm, some bad things can easily happen. Variable speed lathes allow you to make all the incremental adjustments you need as you turn. Check out variable speed lathe review as an example.
Hi Kent W, just picked up this article of yours on speed, the speed formula was just a wording error on your part, but may I ask is there any likely issues arise if a lower speed required, when as my machine does not go below “750 rpm” or is it a case of common sence prevails.
Thanks for writing.
A fixed speed lathe will be an issue with larger turnings. Based on the Diameter/9000 rule, I would recommend not exceeding a bowl diameter of 12″. Let me know if that helps.
“Take the diameter (D) of the bowl divided by 9,000.”
This statement makes no sense. 10 divided by 9000 doesn’t square with you theory.
Ever thought of just using Surface Feet / Minute as a guide?
Thanks for the comment. The example of 9000 divided by 10″ diameter bowl equals 900. The rpm for a 10″ bowl should not exceed 900 rpm. Seems pretty straight forward.
I’m not sure what the surface feet/minute guide is exactly. Can you explain?
Agree – its the other way around!! You’re also correct on your suggestion to use surface feet per minute. Taking the 10″ bowl as an example. It has a circumference of 31.4″, which means in one minute it the outer surface of the blank passes the cutting tool 900 times – this means the distance travelled is 900x circumference = 900 x 31,4 = 28260 inches /minute or 2355 feet/minute (this is the same for all the examples given). 9000 is simply a factor to make the maths easy. It assumes all wood is equal and all tools are equally sharp! I prefer the “start at a speed at which there is no vibration” and always below a 1000rpm until you’ve confidence in the bowl and most of the wood mass is removed.
No vibration (and no launching wood blanks) is the key, yes!
Great info, thanks. Small point of clarification. The formula “9000/D” is what you meant to state. The phrase “Take the diameter (D) of the bowl divided by 9,000” would be written as “D/9000”. Example – “take 2 and divide by 5” is written “2/5”. I think what you meant to write was “Take 9000 and divide by the diameter (D) of the bowl”. Hope this helps.
Thanks, Bob, correction made.
Thanks for the detailed article, very helpful
What about when sanding/finishing is it still recomended to stay under 1000?
Good article. My question is how did you come up with 9,000 as the rule of thumb number to be used? Why not 7,500 or 10,000? I have seen other articles use 9,000 but no one explains why.
9,000 is the number that works best for larger, more dangerous bowls. It seems a bowl around ten inches in diameter should not go faster than 1,000 rpm. I suggest keeping all bowls under 1,000 rpm. As the diameter increases, dividing by 9,000 proportionally reduces the maximum rpm based on the larger bowl size.
It’s really the bowls over 10″ that we need to careful with excess speed. This equation starts affecting the bowls at 10″ and larger, and it’s really not relevant for the smaller bowls.
Thanks for the question, Ed.
Thank you so much
You’re very welcome! Happy Turning!!
thank you for your bowl speed guideline , I will find it most useful when I do the larger bowls.
You’re welcome Ray!
Thank you that is a very informative article an yes when you’re starting out it is intimidating about the blank come off. My question is I have an rigid lathe when is only belt driven thus stopped can only be changed when it turned off. Is keeping it at about 750 or so on 6 to 8 inch blanks a good idea as so they don’t come off? I wished I could up grade but just can’t do it right now.
I recommend using the slowest speed possible when you first start a new bowl. Happy Turning!